Unpublished material: Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described is not copyrighted, published or submitted elsewhere, except in abstract form. The corresponding author should ensure that all authors approve the manuscript before its submission.
Minimum formatting requirements upon submission: Manuscripts should be in English and submitted as PDF, Word, docx, rtf, or LaTex files. Use a standard font with font size 12pt. Line spacing should be at least 1.5; all margins should be at least 1 inch or 2.5 cm wide. The first page of the manuscript should contain the title, the names of authors, and an abstract. Figures if any should be included with the text. Acceptance of a manuscript for publication is conditional on conforming to the journal’s formatting guidelines outlined below.
Copyright: Manuscripts are accepted on condition of transfer of copyright (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) to . Once the manuscript is accepted, it may not be published elsewhere without the consent of the copyright holders.
Ethical conduct of research: The authors must describe and confirm safeguards to meet ethical standards.
Conflict of interest: When authors submit a manuscript, they are responsible for recognizing and disclosing financial and/or other conflicts of interest that might bias their work and/or could inappropriately influence his/her judgment. If no specified acknowledgement is given, the Publishers assume that no conflict of interest exists.
MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION GUIDELINES
This document provides authors with details on policy, copyediting, formatting, and layout requirements pertaining to manuscript submission to this journal. All manuscripts must have correct formatting to be considered for publication.
The manuscript submission and review process is handled through ScholarOne Manuscripts. All manuscripts should be submitted to .
CONTENT AND STRUCTURE
• Manuscripts should be submitted as LaTeX, Word, docx, or rtf files.
• If your manuscript contains special characters, equations, etc. please make sure to also supply a PDF version as a reference file. This will be used to ensure any formatting issues introduced during the submission process can be corrected accurately.
• Write your article in English
• Use the following document structure:
1. Introduction (titling this section is optional)
2. Subsequent sections which include tables, references to figures and figure captions.
3. Appendices (if any).
4. References - Include a proper bibliography following the guidelines in the References section below.
5. Please supply figures in separate files. Please see the “Tables, Figures, and Graphs” section below for more detailed instructions regarding figure submission.
For authors working with LaTeX files, please see the related files and documentation at, including a template for author use and instructions for working with the files.
• Only use Unicode fonts (e.g. Times New Roman, Arial)
• Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. De Gruyter encourages authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, images, and graphs. However, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black and white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.
EMPHASIZED TEXT, TITLES, AND FOREIGN TERMS
• To indicate text you wish to emphasize, use italics rather than underlining. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.
• Foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.
• Titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.
The use of abbreviations and acronyms is permitted provided they are defined the first time they are used.
Headings (e.g., title of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text:
• Clearly indicate the heading hierarchy.
• Be consistent in whether or not you use headline case, or you capitalize the first word and leave the rest in lower-case.
• Footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper.