Pricing theories in Economics

July 3, 2016
Competitive Price Theory

Price refers to the value of a commodity and services expressed in terms of money. Now we are fixing price for any kind of goods and services. Even consider a labor we fix a price for his service in terms of wage. It is essential to deliver an economic transaction very smoothly. For this, only money should function its role properly. Here this hub is about the theory of determination of price of goods and services.

Functions of Price

In the early time people were used ‘Barter’ system for the exchanging of goods and services. Now almost all the economies are using money for exchanging goods and services. So, money plays a vital role in an economy. There are different views on money from the early time onwards. Now, people are using highly advanced form of money like e-money. In other words money is single factor of representing price of a commodity. Price performing numbers of functions in an economy. Some of them are described below.

I) Median of exchange

As said above, the collapse of ‘Barter’ system lead to the invention of money. In the early time, most of the money were in the form of precious metals. Gradually, banks and central banks were founded and began to use various types of paper currencies and coins.

II) Unit of account

Now, the value of goods and services are measured in terms of money. here money acts like an measure to account the value of commodities. So, money considered as a unit of measure.

III) Incentive to production

A high price always encourages producers to produce more. Suppose the wage is very high, normally laborers have a tendency to work more or suppose the price of the commodity is high then the producers would ready to produce more, because they want more profits.

IV) Signaling mechanism

Suppose the price of a product is high, automatically the consumer have a tendency to consume related complimentary goods (complimentary goods= different goods which can be used to satisfy a particular want). Similarly, producers, investors, savers, money lenders etc are also use the trends in price to reduce their risk and maximize utility.

Price Determination

In a perfect competitive market price is determined at the interaction point where both demand and supply curves. Demand curve is inversely related with price (when price increase demand decrease) and supply is directly related with price (when price increase supply also increase).

The theory of price determination can be explained with the following figure

Here consider Apple is the commodity. In the diagram consider price is ‘P’. At point ‘P’ the quantity demanded of Apple is equal to the quantity supplied. Here point ‘E’ is the equilibrium point and ‘P’ is the equilibrium price of the commodity Apple.

Consider price ‘P1’ the demand for Apple, then the supply is high while demand is less. This condition is known as “excess supply”

Consider price ‘P2’ the demand of Apple, where the demand for is more than its supply. This condition known as “excess demand”

Since at point ‘E’ the quantity supplied equal to the quantity demanded, ‘E’ is the equilibrium point and ‘P’ is the market determined price. This is the simple representation of the determination of price and quantity demanded for a commodity. Similarly other commodities in teh market will be demanded. This is the automatic adjustment model of price determination propounded by teh classical economists.

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